William and Mary (1690-1725)

William and Mary is a European influenced style, named after the reign of William and Mary of England (1689-1694). William and Mary has Dutch and Chinese influences. It is characterized by trumpet turned legs terminating in a ball or Spanish foot, padded or caned chair seats, and Oriental lacquerwork. 




Graceful and Refined – Elegant Appearance.(Federal style shown)

Chair Arms

Contoured – Arms curve inward.
Straight – Arms are straight and perpendicular to the chair.

Chair Back Material

Cane – Woven rattan.
Upholstered – Cushioned and fabric covered.
Wood – Solid wood, horizontal slats, vertical slats, or vertical splats.

Chair Back Shape

Banister – Three to six vertical turned slats in the shape of a baluster, flat on the front and round on the back.
Stile and Panel – Wood or cane back panel framed between two straight or turned stiles.

Chair Leg

Cabriole – Curved leg in the shape of an animal’s leg. The cabriole leg increased the stability of seating pieces and reduced the need for underbracing.
Elaborate Turning – Turned leg with multiple types of turnings.
Round – Round, usually shaped or turned leg.
Straight – Straight leg, vertical to chair seat.

Chair Seat Material

Cane – Woven rattan.
Leather – Animal hide.
Rush – Woven rush.
Upholstered – Cushioned and covered with fabric.

Chair Seat Shape

Square – Square shaped seat.

Drawer Pull

Ring Pull with Round Back Plate – Ring pull attached by a knob to a circular back plate.
Tear Drop – Tear-drop shaped pull attached by a knob to a back plate. The back plate is usually circular, oval, or diamond shaped.
Turned Wooden Knob – Elongated, turned wooden knob, often 3 inches long and 1.25 inches in diameter.


Chintz – Plain woven sometimes glazed cloth imprinted with patterns or designs, often floral with five bright colors.
Damask – Medium weight, glossy fabric with a reversible pattern and a figured intricate weave, often of linen, cotton, silk, or wool.
Needlepoint – A type of counted thread embroidery in which yarn is stitched through an open canvas weave.


Gilding – Gold leaf.
Lacquer – Tough, adherent finish that can be clear or pigmented.
Oil Varnish – Clear finish that emphasized the grain of the wood.
Paint – Opaque, pigmented finish that obscures the grain of the wood.
Wax – Paste finish over a sealer, stain, or bare wood.


Ball – Rounded ball-shaped foot.
Bun – Rounded foot, flatter than a ball foot.
Spanish – Elaborately carved foot, resembling a hoof.

Hardware Material

Brass – Yellowish metal made from copper and zinc.
Iron – Grayish-brown metal with a dull finish.
Silver – Gray-white metal, which can be highly polished.


Dovetail – An interlocking wood joint in which a series of wedge-shaped projections fits into a series of alternating grooves.


Straight – Straight lines.


Acanthus leaf – Conventionalized leaf.
Floral – Flowers, such as roses, sunflowers, and tulips.
Oriental Patterns – Oriental figures, usually painted or lacquered.
Scroll – Form that resembles a roll of parchment paper.
Seaweed – Very delicate marquetry representing a marine plant.
Shell – Fan shaped sell.


Carving – Cutting or chipping the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Inlay – Contrasting material set into the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Marquetry – Combinations of veneer used to create pictures or patterns.
Oriental Lacquerwork – A lacquer surface on which designs are drawn in gold or color; also referred to as Japanning or chinoiserie.
Parquetry – Combinations of veneer used to create geometric patterns.


Medium – Moderate dimensions.(Queen Anne style shown)


Moderate – Moderately proportioned stretchers(William and Mary style shown).


Black Walnut – Dark brown American hardwood with a wide range of figures.
Ebony Veneer – Dark brown to black African hardwood with black stripes.
Fruitwood – Pink-brown American hardwood, including apple and pear.
Holly – Creamy-white American hardwood with a speckled grain.